Ch.2 What’s the Matter?
Stuff around us is made of matter (mass and volume)
It is organized using official categories:
states- solid, liquid, gas, aqueous, gels, plasma,
Classification of Matter will be done using the official terms:
Elements Compounds Hetero Homo
Metals Nonmetals Ionic Molecular Mechanical mixture
Alloys Acid Solution Base Salt
a. distillation – boiling off the solvent
b. paper chromatography
c. filter or distillation
e. dissolving and filtering
Molecular Substances (elements) J L
(see page B3,B4)
- the compound is made of separate molecules (one or more atom)
the non-metals with each other such as the
diatomic elements H2, O2, F2, ….
Also some exceptions:
P4, S8, Cn, Sin
- THE OFFICIAL METHOD FOR NAMING COMPOUNDS
USING IUPAC RULES.
(International Union Pure and Applied Chemists)
- The molecular compounds with “common names” because they are so common.
Ozone, water, ammonia, methane, sucrose, methanol, ethanol , hydrogen peroxide
(see list on page B4 )
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4
Hydrochloric Acid HCl
Nitric Acid HNO3
Molecular substances as identified by compounds formed between two non-metals.
These compounds do not follow the rules of combining capacity or valence but form molecules depending on the conditions.
(they have covalent bonds)
We just have to know how to count the atoms and use latin prefixes to name the compound.
2 – di
3 – tri
4 – tetra
5 – penta
6 – hexa
7 – hepta
8 – octa
9 – nona
10 – deca
CO - don’t use “mono” on the first element only the second
with Oxygen drop one of the “O’s”
…. Name is carbon monoxide
P2O4 - Diphosphorous tetraoxide
Complete Sheet 1 - Nomenclature of Molecular Substances
Heath Text – p55. review Q. 1, 2
a. Monosilicon monocarbide or Silicon monocarbide
b. Carbon disulfide
c. Sulfur hexafluoride
d. Oxygen difluoride
e Sulfur dioxide
f. Sulfur trioxide
g. Dinitrogen pentaoxide
h. Nitrogen monoxide (Nitric oxide – corrosive)
(Nitrous oxide, N2O = laughing gas, fuel additive)