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Ch.2 What’s the Matter?

 

Stuff around us is made of matter (mass and volume)

It is organized using official categories:

states- solid, liquid, gas, aqueous, gels, plasma,

 

 Classification of Matter will be done using the official terms:

 

                SUBSTANCES

     Pure                              Mixtures

Elements         Compounds             Hetero             Homo

Metals    Nonmetals             Ionic       Molecular                              Mechanical mixture

                                                                                                                Suspension          

                                                                                                                                                                 Alloys    Acid Solution                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Base       Salt

                                                                                                                                                                 Colloid

 

a.  distillation – boiling off the solvent

b.  paper chromatography

c.  filter or distillation

d.  magnet

e.  dissolving and filtering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Molecular Substances (elements) J  L

(see page B3,B4)

- the compound is made of separate molecules (one or more atom)

- Who? 

the non-metals with each other such as the

diatomic elements   H2, O2, F2, ….

Also some exceptions:

P4, S8, Cn, Sin

 

NOMENCLATURE

 

- THE OFFICIAL METHOD FOR NAMING COMPOUNDS

 USING IUPAC RULES.

 (International Union Pure and Applied Chemists)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Category I

- The molecular compounds with “common names” because they are so common.

Ozone, water, ammonia, methane, sucrose, methanol, ethanol , hydrogen peroxide 

 

(see list on page B4 )

 

Glucose  C6H12O6

 

Sulphuric Acid            H2SO­4                                  

Hydrochloric Acid       HCl

Nitric Acid                  HNO3

 

 

 

 

 

Category 2

Molecular substances as identified by compounds formed between two non-metals.

These compounds do not follow the rules of combining capacity or valence but form molecules depending on the conditions.

 (they have covalent bonds)

We just have to know how to count the atoms and use latin prefixes to name the compound.

  

1 –mono

2 – di

3 – tri

4 – tetra

5 – penta

6 – hexa

7 – hepta

8 – octa

9 – nona

10 – deca

 

Examples:

 

CO  -  don’t use “mono” on the first element only the second

          with Oxygen drop one of the “O’s”

 

…. Name is carbon monoxide

 

 

P2O4  -   Diphosphorous tetraoxide

 

 

Complete Sheet 1 -  Nomenclature of Molecular Substances

Heath Text – p55. review Q. 1, 2

 

 

 

 

Q1

a.   Monosilicon monocarbide  or  Silicon monocarbide

b.   Carbon disulfide

c.  Sulfur hexafluoride

d.  Oxygen difluoride

e    Sulfur dioxide

f.   Sulfur trioxide

g.  Dinitrogen pentaoxide

h.  Nitrogen monoxide   (Nitric oxide – corrosive)

(Nitrous oxide, N2O = laughing gas, fuel additive)

 

 

Q2.

a.  ClO2

b. Cl2O

c.  IBr3

d.  NI3

e.  P2O4